Spiritual Warfare, Causes OfSpiritual Warfare, Enemies InSuffering, Of BelieversBeneficial Afflictions For FaithAfflictions, Consolation DuringDeath Of The Saints, Results InMartyrdom Of The SaintsAfflictions, Benefits OfFear, Of PersecutionSatan, Work OfPersecution PredictedTen Or More DaysCrowns For God's PeopleBemaTribulation MartydomSpiritual crownsCasting Out FearPersecutionLuciferEnd Of DaysWorrying About The Futurejail

These days it is difficult to hear how many believers have married those who they thought were of equal devotion to the Lord but due to wrong teaching, lack of knowledge of the Word and time applying it, often because we now have GENERATIONS not trained up in the things of GOD by parents who GOD ordained to do so ..and even if they were kids in church the churches have long since fallen away from godly right teaching in many instances….SO we have a lack of knowing what to look for and how to determine the true devotion of anyone who claims the Lord …until there has been sufficient time in study and right doctrinal instruction for a person newly entering into Christ.
Hi Jerry, Thank you for your great response. I have no doubt that the Spirit moves you in your prayer to speak in tongues. Paul said he spoke in tongues more than all of them. I just don’t happen to have that gift. I also don’t think that I have a gift of miracles either. I have some other gifts that are very strong, however, and I am prayerfully seeking His will. That is not to say that at some point God might bestow a gift of tongues upon me if it was His will and was for His glory. I read Pastor Jack’s response as well and will restate that not all people have all gifts. Paul was very clear about that point. A day may come when God needs me to speak to someone whose language I don’t know, I have no doubt that He would use me as He needed me and I would speak in tongues, as I am His willing vessel. Biblical Verses Image
That is why we as believers need to learn how to be lead and taught by the Holy Spirit. Even the Bible must be taught by Him so we can get past our natural mental understanding of it. He has taught me to know when it is Him teaching because it will always produce the love of God and the love of our neighbors. Because we can think when everything is going good it is from God or when things are not going good it is not from God if we are not lead by the Holy Spirit. Bible Verse Wall Art

We have all been given different talents, gifts, abilities. God works in different ways through each of us, and we all serve him faithfully as we use our gifts to glorify him. We should invest the gifts that God has blessed us with wisely. We should use our gifts and abilities to honor God and to bless, encourage and strengthen others in love (without love, all our gifts are nothing!). We should not neglect our gifts, but instead develop them, “stir them up”, “fan them into flames”… so that they get even better, to the edification of the church and to the glory of God. See Also: Bible Verses about Serving God & Others
Glad to be of any help Pastor. I have an old computer too and was told it was unfixable two yrs ago. God blessed me with a coworker who was former MI intelligence. He took my computer home, used his to boot it up since we were unable to even start it. I had gotten a bug that my antivirus missed and it attacked my windows start up program. He rewrote my program which is now a lost art amoung most computer techs who rely on programs to diagnoise and fix issues. Ask around and maybe you will find an old programer who knows dos. My computer had to have some memory added as its about ten yrs old, runs a little slow but form basic use, its fine.
Hi Roger, I would like to talk to you on Skype or yahoo messenger if possible. I have not been on here for a while but postings on here automatically comes to my mail and i read some of your postings which are really Spirit inspired. We might be able to talk and encourage each other. If you get this posting and writes back to me that is a good sign, however, if you are not able to, that is fine because Jesus is in charge. My email is williberk @ yahoo.com. Hope to hear from you. You can add me on Skype or yahoo messenger or something.
I was not even aware that there was a NAME for this kind of thing until more recent years …it was “Higher Criticism’ that was one of the key elements along with many other ‘isms’ added to the faith …going back to the most basic way that the Serpent used and still finds most effective to deconstruct people’s hope in learning truth from the Bible , the scriptures that are GOD breathed and trustworthy are being ripped apart by anti christian ‘scholars’ who are nothing more than skeptics and workers of evil intent upon destroying the faith of those who are unstable and unlearned at the earliest age possible. Bible Scripture Images
Each and every church member is clearly a part of “… the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it. And God has placed in the church first of all apostles (no longer in this church age), second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, of helping, of guidance, and of different kinds of tongues. Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work miracles? Do all have gifts of healing? Do all speak in tongues? Do all interpret? Now eagerly desire the greater gifts“(I Cor. 12:28-31). I pray you not only seek and discover your gifts but that you utilize them to the strengthening of the Body of Christ, for which you are a part. If you are not, then today is the time to become part of Christ’s church because members of this body will live on into eternity.
Again my Brother my hearts desire is for believers to be taught and led by the Spirit of God so the can experience the word of God as a tangible reality. That is why I believe the Bible and know it is the word of God. I know it is important that everything must line up with scripture. But many things we believe are not written in the Bible like the word “trinity” but we all know there is the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Scripture Images
This actually has left many of those betrayed feeling like they were the cause of their spouse’s sinful choice! This is not just in the secular world of attempts to ‘fix’ a marriage but also is found in many church counselling paradigms. I have read many testimonies of how frustrated people who have gone to get help who have come away with either useless , cliche advice , or worse , damaging them by lack of wise counsel upon this most difficult issue. Bible Scripture Images
Each and every church member is clearly a part of “… the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it. And God has placed in the church first of all apostles (no longer in this church age), second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, of helping, of guidance, and of different kinds of tongues. Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work miracles? Do all have gifts of healing? Do all speak in tongues? Do all interpret? Now eagerly desire the greater gifts“(I Cor. 12:28-31). I pray you not only seek and discover your gifts but that you utilize them to the strengthening of the Body of Christ, for which you are a part. If you are not, then today is the time to become part of Christ’s church because members of this body will live on into eternity.
The book of Acts show many examples of new Christians receiving the Spirit and speaking in tongues, but it also speaks of people believing the gospel without this experience. I don’t believe that one who does not “speak in tongues” is not indwelt by the Holy Spirit which we all receive when we are born again. I also don’t believe the tongues described in Acts chapter 2 and the tongues spoken of in 1st Cor. 12-14. You say that Paul was reproving the Corinthian church for using tongues in a pagan way. The scriptures do not say this. I believe Paul was telling them this and all other gifts were to be used for the edifying of the church and if others could not understand what was being said it would not edify them. Or if an unbeliever would come into a meeting with several people speaking in tongues they would think the church was a bunch of lunatics. Paul says that whoever speaks in an unknown tongue should pray for the interpretation of it so the church could be edified. Tongues described in 1stCor. Is a gift where believer can pray to God “spirit to Spirit” 1Cor. 14:14-15. I do not believe these tongues were meant to be understood by the human mind. Bible Scripture Images
and not only this, but he has also been appointed by the churches to travel with us in this gracious work, which is being administered by us for the glory of the Lord Himself, and to show our readiness, taking precaution so that no one will discredit us in our administration of this generous gift; for we have regard for what is honorable, not only in the sight of the Lord, but also in the sight of men.

Then Daniel was brought in before the king. The king spoke and said to Daniel, "Are you that Daniel who is one of the exiles from Judah, whom my father the king brought from Judah? "Now I have heard about you that a spirit of the gods is in you, and that illumination, insight and extraordinary wisdom have been found in you. "Just now the wise men and the conjurers were brought in before me that they might read this inscription and make its interpretation known to me, but they could not declare the interpretation of the message.read more.
NOw he is deeply damaged and I petition the Lord to continue to work in my own walk and for the soul of my husband …and that of the OW and those children …OUR own children have been deeply wounded too …they have been raised in the Word so I thank the Lord for keeping them in His care despite the way that my husband’s choices have indicated that he did not even think of how this would hurt them as well. Bible Scripture Images
"Accept these things from them, that they may be used in the service of the tent of meeting, and you shall give them to the Levites, to each man according to his service." So Moses took the carts and the oxen and gave them to the Levites. Two carts and four oxen he gave to the sons of Gershon, according to their service, and four carts and eight oxen he gave to the sons of Merari, according to their service, under the direction of Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest. But he did not give any to the sons of Kohath because theirs was the service of the holy objects, which they carried on the shoulder. The leaders offered the dedication offering for the altar when it was anointed, so the leaders offered their offering before the altar. Then the LORD said to Moses, "Let them present their offering, one leader each day, for the dedication of the altar." Now the one who presented his offering on the first day was Nahshon the son of Amminadab, of the tribe of Judah; and his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering; one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense; one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering; one male goat for a sin offering; and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Nahshon the son of Amminadab. On the second day Nethanel the son of Zuar, leader of Issachar, presented an offering; he presented as his offering one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering; one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense; one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering; one male goat for a sin offering; and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Nethanel the son of Zuar. On the third day it was Eliab the son of Helon, leader of the sons of Zebulun; his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering; one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense; one young bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering; one male goat for a sin offering; and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Eliab the son of Helon. On the fourth day it was Elizur the son of Shedeur, leader of the sons of Reuben; his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering; one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense; one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering; one male goat for a sin offering; and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Elizur the son of Shedeur. On the fifth day it was Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai, leader of the children of Simeon; his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering; one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense; one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering; one male goat for a sin offering; and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai. On the sixth day it was Eliasaph the son of Deuel, leader of the sons of Gad; his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering; one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense; one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering; one male goat for a sin offering; and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Eliasaph the son of Deuel. On the seventh day it was Elishama the son of Ammihud, leader of the sons of Ephraim; his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering; one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense; one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering; one male goat for a sin offering; and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Elishama the son of Ammihud. On the eighth day it was Gamaliel the son of Pedahzur, leader of the sons of Manasseh; his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering; one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense; one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering; one male goat for a sin offering; and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Gamaliel the son of Pedahzur. On the ninth day it was Abidan the son of Gideoni, leader of the sons of Benjamin; his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering; one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense; one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering; one male goat for a sin offering; and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Abidan the son of Gideoni. On the tenth day it was Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai, leader of the sons of Dan; his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering; one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense; one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering; one male goat for a sin offering; and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai. On the eleventh day it was Pagiel the son of Ochran, leader of the sons of Asher; his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering; one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense; one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering; one male goat for a sin offering; and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Pagiel the son of Ochran. On the twelfth day it was Ahira the son of Enan, leader of the sons of Naphtali; his offering was one silver dish whose weight was one hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, both of them full of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering; one gold pan of ten shekels, full of incense; one bull, one ram, one male lamb one year old, for a burnt offering; one male goat for a sin offering; and for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five male goats, five male lambs one year old. This was the offering of Ahira the son of Enan. This was the dedication offering for the altar from the leaders of Israel when it was anointed: twelve silver dishes, twelve silver bowls, twelve gold pans, each silver dish weighing one hundred and thirty shekels and each bowl seventy; all the silver of the utensils was 2,400 shekels, according to the shekel of the sanctuary; the twelve gold pans, full of incense, weighing ten shekels apiece, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, all the gold of the pans 120 shekels; all the oxen for the burnt offering twelve bulls, all the rams twelve, the male lambs one year old with their grain offering twelve, and the male goats for a sin offering twelve; and all the oxen for the sacrifice of peace offerings 24 bulls, all the rams 60, the male goats 60, the male lambs one year old 60. This was the dedication offering for the altar after it was anointed.
When you wrote about the meaning of being an apostle, which in most of the forms of its use means a person who follows an ideal, you said that there were none in this age of the church. However aside from the eleven we know and the countless others Christ Jesus showed himself to after the resurrection, we see another example in Paul. He saw Christ and was ordained to be an apostle well after, Would it be strange to believe that something like this would occur throughout all generations until the return. I am no Biblical powerhouse, but this seems to me a more than reasonable thought. Scripture Images
I could share many more experiences of the tangible manifestation of the word of God. But I remember the Holy Spirit telling don’t go chasing after miracles, but chase after the God of the word, and miracles will come as needed. He told me that the devil knows the words of the Bible better than any Christian does. Satan can quote the Bible word for word. even letter by letter, even though he does not have the understanding of it that we can receive from the Holy Spirit. He can perform deceptive miracles, and twist our understanding of what it says. I remember my father was a member of a demonic cult that claimed to believe in Jesus. They prayed for a cousin of mine that was blind and he received his sight. Bible Verse Wall Art
NO one is saying the gifts are not here anymore, but you but the Greek word for tongues does not refer to an unknown language (the word “unknown” is not in the original manuscripts) but we can agree to disagree. Paul said not all spoke in tongues and in the Book of Acts, we see this disappearing, although God is God and does whatsoever He pleases. I never wrote “you can’t have them today” so you are totally wrong about that, but we are still brothers or sisters, regardless, but sadly, I think it’s easy to put more emphasis on the gifts than it is the Gift Giver. For example, two churches I visited, believe that unless you speak in tongues, you are not filled with the Spirit. Some even go so far as to say, you are not saved if you’ve never spoken in the tongues. Then there are miracle healers who are quite different from Jesus. Jesus would tell the person who was healed to tell no one about it, but today “miracle healings “ are on TV, posted on You Tube, and flaunted by some ministries, but most say nothing about the gospel of the kingdom of God, which Jesus said includes repentance and faith (Mark 1:14-15), or about the fruits of the Spirit. Jesus said there are at least two ways we can know who is and who isn’t His disciple; by their love for one another (John 13:34-35) and by their fruits (Matt 7:15-20). James said that a faith with no works is a dead faith, or not genuine saving faith at all (James 2:14-16). Even though we’re not saved by works (Eph 2:8-9), we are saved to do works (Eph2:10), but even these works are from God and to His glory, so why would we ever put more emphasis on the gifts of the Spirit than the fruits of the Spirit? Why are gifts of the Spirit often elevated over the fruits of the Spirit? In a few cases, they overshadow the giver of those gifts, and that is God Himself, from which all good things come (Psalm 107:9). Scripture Images
The next gift of the Spirit Paul mentions is the gift of faith (v 9). Those with this gift are truly amazing in how they see things. They tend to exude confidence in all situations. For example, our church deacon has said about our church growth “when” it grows we will need more Sunday school books, while others say “if” we grow we will need additional books. I met an evangelist once that spoke about things as if they already had existed or had come to pass. He spoke about finances that God would provide while simultaneously have nothing to show for it in the church’s bank account. He would always later prove to be right. This is a person more like God. He sees things that aren’t as if they already are! Bible Scripture Images

The first gift Paul mentions is the gift of wisdom (v 8). It is listed first perhaps because it is foundational to the church and this is a gift that the believer can earnestly desire (v 31). Wisdom is clearly taught in the Word of God and “The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom; all who follow his precepts have good understanding” (Psalm 111:10). This is the precious gift that Solomon asked for and received from God to be able to rightly rule God‘s nation (I Kings 3:12). With this wisdom, Solomon could understand what do in difficult decisions. Wisdom is also associated with fearing the Lord. Fear is simply standing in awe of God in reverence and respect. It entails loving His Word and being obedient to what it says. There is no wisdom in disobedience. This means that if some members are revering God’s laws and statutes, including loving God and loving your neighbor, that many members in the church can have this gift. Of course, many can not have it either. This gift is of supreme importance for members in the Body of Christ for if we can love God and our neighbor, we can greatly contribute to the church and those outside of the church. This love is another way of showing unbelievers and attracting them to Christ by it (John 13:35).


Thank you Jerry…yes, it is time to move on as we can agree to disagree and not be disagreeable as you have not been and you are not or have been disagreeable and I thank you for that. Since not all, even in the early church, Paul wrote that not all speak with tongues, then clearly Augustine was wrong and certainly I must believe what is in the Bible over these early church fathers.

10 Each of you should use whatever gift you have received to serve others, as faithful stewards of God’s grace in its various forms. 11 If anyone speaks, they should do so as one who speaks the very words of God. If anyone serves, they should do so with the strength God provides, so that in all things God may be praised through Jesus Christ. To him be the glory and the power for ever and ever. Amen. Scripture Images
I apologize if you think what I said was accusing you of teaching anything contrary to the gifts of the Spirit. That was not my in tensions. I was just trying to emphasize the importance of learning from the Holy Spirit using whatever vessel He chooses or even when reading the Bible. For instance I will give you two examples of the Holy Spirit teaching me. Biblical Verses Image

Your replies are a great testimony to me of grace as you endeavor to set what the Word says before the reader for consideration. I know that with so many ‘teachers’ that gather a following in the name of Jesus that there are many who have a tenderness and favor toward what is taught as they are convinced of that perspective being truth. I think it is great that people love the teacher they have but there is a need for awareness that we MUST be convinced by what Scripture says rather than leaning upon our own UNDERSTANDING.
Thank you for your question my friend. Something just doesn’t sound right. This laying hands on your forehead and then speaking to you in tongues doesn’t sound biblical. Is it the Holy Spirit? I do not think it is because the Holy Spirit always points to glorify Jesus Christ and focus exclusively on Him and never man or his gifts. You are not questioning the Holy Spirit, so you are fine…what you are doing is seeking to find the truth and it obviously doesn’t feel right and I don’t think it is. I would talk to a pastor of another denomination. If you speak to the pastor of this church you had this experience in, then he will likely support this. Biblical Verses Image

My friend can see spirit beings or ghosts. She can also see something that yet hasn’t happened. For example; she can just sitting on the couch watching tv and suddenly an image (vision) of an event (that happen to someone else not her) appear right in front of her and she doesn’t know why she see it but then it becomes a reality later. She said she’s not comfortable with her ability because sometimes what she can see is something that she doesn’t wanna know or someone’s privacy. What do you think about this? DO you consider this is a gift? thankyouu so much and I apologise for my English. I hope it’s good enough Scripture Images


A large selection of scriptures from God's word relating to "the gifts of God" for personal edification or for bible study. All the scriptures have been taken from the New King James Bible unless otherwise stated. If you click on the scripture reference you will go to that scripture at 'Bible Gateway' where you can read it in the translation or language you want to. Biblical Verses Image
Im the type of person when I wrong I will admit it .When I started checking out my sorce I found it not exactly like he said . I did find some of the things he said but I still have not found what he said Augustine said but if he did say that in 400 ad it doesn,t answer the question why was the gifts seem to be so silent for hundreds of years until the late 1800 or early 1900 and then make an appearing again . I am asking the holy spirit to give me the answers to the questions I have in my mind and heart and I beleave the bible has an answer to every question we just have to dig for it . yes brother jack we have to take the bible over what any man says its the absolute truth given to us from god and the final authority for every thing . May the lord Jesus Bless you . Biblical Verses Image
Romans 12:7-8 also speaks of additional gifts; “if it is serving, then serve; if it is teaching, then teach; if it is to encourage, then give encouragement; if it is giving, then give generously; if it is to lead, do it diligently; if it is to show mercy, do it cheerfully.” This shows that some are gifted at teaching, some at showing mercy, some in giving to the work of the Lord, and some who show an unusual amount of forgiveness (called mercy). Bible Verse Wall Art
Anthony…I nearly wept for you in joy…what an answer to prayer. Thank you for sharing this. This makes me so joyful knowing that you will have the Body of Christ there to surround you and be part of that Body. Yes, I too am in awe of God. He is so good…and knew exactly where to send you and when. I thank God for this answer and glory to Jesus’ name and I thank God for knowing you too Anthony. Bible Scripture Images
Faith, As Basis Of SalvationHope For UnbelieversOnce Saved Always SavedLoveChild sacrificeJesus Role In SalvationPlaitingChrist's Relationship To GodHeart, DivineKnowing I Am SavedFall Of Man, Consequences OfUnion With Christ, Nature OfAdam, DescendantsLove As A Fruit Of The SpiritBlessings, SpiritualLife Through Faitheternal life, nature ofBrokenheartedGrace, And Jesus ChristActionsGenerosity, God'sSacrificing The FirstbornUniquenessGod's attitude towards peopleNot Dyingeternal life, gift ofSalvation, As A GiftLove, Nature OfChristmasBeing BlessedSunsetsGifts From God, SpiritualGod, Love OfSaved By FaithBeing A Part Of The Family Of GodLoss Of A Loved OneEternal life
Now you are Christ's body, and individually members of it. And God has appointed in the church, first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, administrations, various kinds of tongues. All are not apostles, are they? All are not prophets, are they? All are not teachers, are they? All are not workers of miracles, are they?read more.
While many white musicians gravitated toward country, folk, and old-timey music to express their spirituality outside of traditional Christian hymns, Black Gospel music drew heavily upon the traditional spirituals that had been passed down from the days of slavery, picking up its more driving rhythmic emphasis from blues and early jazz. Composer and singer Thomas A. Dorsey crystallized the style in 1932 with his epochal "Take My Hand, Precious Lord," and went on to compose a great many songs that later became standards. When performed in the churches, the music was traditionally sung by a choir, with individual soloists sometimes taking the spotlight; this often happened in a form known as "call and response," in which either the choir or the soloist would repeat and/or answer the lyric which had just been sung by the other, with the soloist improvising embellishments of the melody for greater emphasis. As the music developed, these soloists became more and more virtuosic, performing with wild emotion (and, in the South, physicality) in order to properly express the spiritual ecstasy the music was meant to evoke. The music was quite egalitarian in terms of gender, as both male and female performers -- Brother Joe May, Rev. James Cleveland, Mahalia Jackson, the Clara Ward Singers, etc. -- gained wide renown among both black and white audiences. The small-group format was also prevalent, with major figures including the Five Blind Boys of Mississippi, the Soul Stirrers, the Swan Silvertones, and the Dixie Hummingbirds; in general, these groups placed a greater premium on smooth vocal harmonies, although some performances could approach the raucous energy (if not quite the huge sound) of a choir-with-soloist group. As the years progressed, black gospel and black popular music influenced and borrowed from one another, reflecting the gradual change of emphasis toward R&B; black gospel also had an enormous impact on the development of soul music, which directed gospel's spiritual intensity into more secular concerns, and included a great many performers whose musical skills were developed in the church. As a recognizable style unto itself, black gospel music largely ceased to develop around the 1970s; progressing racial attitudes had helped black popular music reach wider audiences (and become more lucrative) than ever before, and tastes had turned towards the earthy hedonism of funk and the highly arranged, sophisticated Philly soul sound. The former wasn't quite appropriate for worship, and it wasn't all that practical to duplicate the latter in church services. However, the traditional black gospel sound survived intact and was eventually augmented by contemporary gospel (an '80s/'90s variation strongly influenced by latter-day urban R&B); plus, singers like Whitney Houston continued to develop within its ranks. Bible Verse Wall Art
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